Circovirus and Mycoplasma
(PCV2 and M. hyo)

Disease

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) are infectious agents causing two of the top 5 diseases impacting swine production.

The main problem associated to M. hyo infections is chronic respiratory disease called enzootic pneumonia (EP), which can be associated to a dry and non-productive cough. The disease has high morbidity and a low mortality, and it has a strong effect on average daily gain and feed conversion ratio. This pathogen usually amplifies the severity of other infections, including flu, PRRS and PCV2.

PCV2 causes porcine circovirosis. Clinically it is presented as a disease which deteriorates animals from the weaning to the finishing period producing a high mortality rate. The virus is ubiquitous globally. It is very small and very resistant to the environment.

Together, they are stronger

Concurrent infection with PCV2 and M. hyo causes severe respiratory disease and lesions consistent with PRDC.

Economic impact

Porcine circovirus disease has an enormous impact on productivity, with mortality ranging from 4 to 20%.

Before implementation of preventive measures, the cost of the disease for the EU was estimated to be between €562 and €900 million per year.

Economic losses associated with EP and PCVD are consequence of:

Increased mortality and culls.

Reduced growth rates with an overall worsening of production parameters (ADWG, FCR).

Increased costs for management and medication of sick pigs.

Increased costs associated to secondary diseases.


The economic impact of EP in the US has been estimated at $375 to $400 million every year.


Pigs affected by EP take longer to be marketed. Overall, a reduction in the number of animals sold per female per year can be observed. Pigs positive to M. hyo may represent about $2.5 increased cost of production and up to $0.90 additional costs of medication.

Prevalence

PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae are considered ubiquitous, therefore, they may be present in any swine herd worldwide.

In most European countries, prevalence between 24 and 70% of lung lesions compatible with EP at the slaughterhouse have been reported.

A mean M. hyo herd prevalence of 66% in finishing pigs has been estimated by PCR testing.

Porcine circovirus disease reaches a morbidity as high as 50-60%.

Diagnosis

Clinical signs of Porcine Circovirosis and EP are not specific, so in order to have a diagnosis, it is often necessary to perform post-mortem examinations in several pigs (including lung lesions scoring at the slaughterhouse).

The diagnosis is based in some factors:
  • Presence of compatible clinical signs, mainly poor body condition and general illness.
  • Presence of gross and microscopic lesions characteristic of the disease.
  • Presence of PCV-2 antigen or DNA in microscopic lesions. *
  • Lymph depletion.

*Since infection with PCV-2 is extremely common in clinically healthy pigs, detection of PCV-2 in serum or tissues by PCR, or detection of PCV-2 antibodies in serum by ELISA is not sufficient to establish a diagnosis of PCVD.

PCV Disease can also manifest as part of the respiratory disease complex, as an enteric disease, as porcine dermatitis, and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), or as reproductive problems. The most important lesions are found in kidneys, which are swollen, pale and have little dots related to small hemorrhages in its surface.

M. hyo can be diagnosed based on clinical signs and post-mortem examinations, sometimes combined with histology of the lesions. However, it might be necessary to confirm the diagnosis through one or more of the following tests: ELISA, serological tests, microscopical examination of lung-stained touch preparations, immunofluorescence tests, PCR and culture and identification of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

Treatment and prevention

In acute outbreaks or endemic herds for M. hyo (EP) consider the following factors:
  • Strategically medicate pigs at critical periods of high risk.
  • Inject severely affected pigs with antibiotics.

Vaccination of gilts (and sows) against PVC2 and M. hyo are widespread and proved highly effective at controlling the disease, reducing mortality and pathology.


Thorough hygiene before farrowing is also important. Farms should also ensure the adequate and early intake of colostrum, which contains high amounts of maternally derived antibodies. This way, sows can pass PCV2 and M. hyo antibodies to their piglets so they get protected on their first weeks of life till their own vaccination.

To assess the cost-effectiveness of vaccines/prevention strategies and return on investment, a constant monitoring of vaccine outcomes and economy of production is required. In England, it was estimated that farmers could save on average £14,739 to £57,648/100 sows/5 years by means of vaccination.

Download the disease infographic

MSD Animal Health solutions to control Circovirus and Mycoplasma (PCV2 and M.Hyo)


ResPig: Porcilis® PCV M Hyo

ResPig Porcilis® PCV M Hyo is a ready-to-use (RTU) one-dose combination vaccine that gives double protection against PCV and M. hyo. Requiring no mixing, this vaccine is easy to administer, safe and protects piglets throughout the grow/finish period in a single-injection.

SOLUTIONS
Porcilis® PCV M Hyo

Ready-to-use vaccine against Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and M. hyopneumoniae.

Onset of immunity with single dose vaccination:

PCV2: 2 weeks after vaccination
M. hyopneumoniae: 4 weeks after vaccination.

Duration of immunity (both vaccination schedules):

PCV2: 22 weeks after (the last) vaccination
M. hyopneumoniae: 21 weeks after (the last) vaccination.


BENEFITS
  • Double protection in 1 injection.
  • Reduced loss of daily weight gain.
  • Reduced viraemia, virus load in lungs and lymphoid tissues, and virus shedding caused by PCV2.
  • Reduced severity of lung lesion scores caused by M. hyopneumoniae.

HOW TO USE IT
  • 1 dose schedule of 2 ml: starting at 3 weeks of age.
  • It can be mixed with Porcilis® Lawsonia.
  • It can be given concurrently with Porcilis® PRRS.

Available in EU, APSA, and LATAM.

ResPig: Circumvent PCV M

Circumvent PCV M is a ready-to-use, 2 dose vaccine against PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae in piglets. It controls the clinical signs of porcine circovirus and prevents the viremia that leads to chronic circovirus infection. With Circumvent PCV M there is no mixing, no extra labor, no risk of contamination and no requirement to use within 4 hours.

SOLUTIONS
Circumvent® PCV M

Ready-to-use vaccine against Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and M. hyopneumoniae.

Onset of immunity: 2 weeks after the last vaccination.
(3weeks for M. hyopneumiae).


BENEFITS
  • No mixing, meaning no extra labor and no risk of contamination.
  • An aid in the prevention of viremia and an aid in the reduction of virus shedding caused by porcine circovirus type 2.
  • Aid in the control of pneumonia caused by M. hyopneumoniae.

HOW TO USE IT
  • It is a 2-dose product, administered at 3 days of age and again at 3 weeks later.
  • Ready-to-use in a single bottle.
  • No mixing – reducing time and effort

Available in APSA and LATAM.

ResPig: Circumvent PCV M G2

Ready-to-use combination vaccine against PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae in 2 different possible vaccination schemes.

SOLUTIONS
Circumvent® PCV-M G2

Ready-to-use combination vaccine against PCV2 and M hyo.

Onset of immunity: at least 20 weeks following completion of vaccination has been demonstrated.


BENEFITS
  • Prevents PCV2 viremia, the initial stage in the development of PCV2 disease.
  • Early treatment limits or eliminates damage caused by infection.
  • No mixing, combining or risk of contamination from the process.
  • It has demonstrated a DOI of at least 20 weeks following completion of vaccination.

HOW TO USE IT
  • 2-doses program: initial 1-mL dose as early as 3 days of age followed by a second 1-mL dose 3 weeks later.
  • 1 dose program: single 2ml dose at 3 weeks of age.

Available in NA

The IDAL Way: Porcilis PCV ID and Porcilis M Hyo ID Once

IDAL is a needle-free intradermal device, developed to give a fixed 0,2 ml vaccine dose in the dermis of the pig. IDAL or equivalent device*

* a multi-dose needle-free injection device for intradermal application of liquids suitable to deliver a “jet-stream” volume of vaccine (0.2ml ± 10%) through the epidermal layers of the skin.

SOLUTIONS
Porcilis® PCV ID

Subunit vaccine against PCV2 infection for intradermal use with an ID device.

Onset of immunity: 2 weeks after vaccination
Duration of immunity: 26 weeks after vaccination

Porcilis® M Hyo ID Once

Single dose vaccine against M. hyopneumoniae for intradermaluse with an ID device.

Onset of immunity: 3 weeks after vaccination
Duration of immunity: 22 weeks after vaccination

BENEFITS
  • Convenient use:

    Porcilis PCV ID & Porcilis M Hyo ID Once may be concurrently administered in the IDAL® 3G Twin.

    Other combinations available: Porcilis PCV ID mixed with Porcilis Lawsonia ID (consult IDAL section of this webpage or download the ResPig infographic).
  • DOI:

    Porcilis PCV ID Porcilis PCV ID protects for 26 weeks following vaccination.

    Porcilis M Hyo ID Once protects for 22 weeks following vaccination.
  • Efficacy: 

    Porcilis PCV ID is indicated to reduce:
    · Viraemia caused by PCV2 infection.
    · Virus load in lungs and lymphoid tissues caused by PCV2 infection.
    · Virus shedding caused by PCV2 infection.
    · Loss of daily weight gain and mortality associated with PCV2 infection.

    Porcilis M Hyo ID Once is indicated to reduce:
    · M. hyopneumoniae lung lesions.
    · The decrease in daily weight gain during finishing period due to M. hyo infection.